There are several environmental water holders in the Goulburn system. The Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder holds the largest volume and use of Commonwealth water for the environment is critical to achieving outcomes in the Goulburn River, as well as priority environmental sites further downstream. Water for the environment held on behalf of the Living Murray program may assist in meeting objectives in the Goulburn system en route to icon sites in the Murray system (see subsection 1.4.2). Water held by the VEWH in the Goulburn system is used to meet environmental objectives in the Goulburn River and the Goulburn wetlands.
The construction and operation of Lake Eildon and Goulburn Weir have significantly altered the natural flow regime of the Goulburn River. Water-harvesting during wet periods and regulated releases to meet irrigation and other consumptive demands during dry periods mean that flow downstream of these structures is typically low in winter and spring and high in summer and autumn. This effectively reverses the natural seasonal flow pattern. Land use changes and the construction of small dams and drainage schemes have further modified the Goulburn River’s flow regime. Levees and other structures prevent water inundating the floodplain and filling many of the natural wetlands and billabongs. If the opportunity arose to deliver water for the environment above current river thresholds at the right time to support improved environmental outcomes, water managers would consider it. Several tributaries including the Acheron and Yea rivers and the Broken River outfall downstream of Lake Eildon add some flow variation on top of the regulated flow regime in the Goulburn River. Large floods that cause the Goulburn River storages to fill and spill are also important for the overall flow regime and its associated environmental values.
The priority environmental flow reaches in the Goulburn River are downstream of Goulburn Weir (reaches 4 and 5), which are collectively referred to as the lower Goulburn River. The mid-Goulburn River extends from Lake Eildon to Goulburn Weir (reaches 1 to 3). From early spring to late autumn, large volumes of water are delivered from Lake Eildon to Goulburn Weir to supply the irrigation system. During that period, flow in the mid-Goulburn River is usually well above the recommended environmental flow targets. Deliveries of water for the environment have the most benefit in the mid-Goulburn River (especially in reach 1 immediately downstream of Lake Eildon) outside the irrigation season, when flow is much lower than natural.
Environmental flow targets can sometimes be met by the coordinated delivery of operational water being transferred from Lake Eildon to the River Murray. These transfers are known as inter-valley transfers (IVTs). These transfers occur during the irrigation season between spring and autumn, and they may meet environmental flow objectives without the need to release water for the environment. In recent years, operational transfers in the Goulburn River have significantly exceeded the environmental flow recommendations for summer and early autumn and have damaged bank vegetation and eroded the riverbanks.